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Technology X-ray diffraction (XRD)
 
Protection strategy Product authentication
Type Analytical technique
System Laboratory based
Medium Medicine (powder form)
Authentication/Identificaton Authentication
Traceability No
Cost Price on request
Required equipment XRD apparatus
Vertification level Laboratories
N.B. portable XRD instruments are now becoming available. The spectrum of the sample is compared to known spectra in the database. The portable XRD machines are more expensive than infrared machines but offer complementary capabilities.
Description X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a technique that reveals detailed information about the chemical composition and crystallographic structure of natural and manufactured materials. The technique of XRD utilizes an X-ray beam to probe a sample. The incident X-rays are directed towards a slowly tilted sample. At characteristic angles (i.e., Bragg angles), a given crystalline sample (organic or inorganic) will diffract the beam. Based on the resulting diffraction pattern, the material can be identified.
 
Strengths Relatively rapid (< 20 min); Identification of an unknown mineral; Minimal sample preparation required; Data interpretation is relatively straight forward;
 
Limitations Cost;
Requires equipment + formation,
Destruction of the packaging and the pill;
Powder form only;
Requires spectra reference (standard reference file of inorganic compounds);
 
  Links:http://www.americanpharmaceuticalreview.com/Featured-Articles/115052-XRD-in-Pharmaceutical-Analysis-A-Versatile-Tool-for-Problem-Solving/

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